These tree-size lycopods or club mosses are notable for their scale-like bark. From the base upward the plant was anchored in shallow soil by several “Y”-branch rooting organs called stigmata. These had spirally arranged, finger-size roots coming from them. A pole-like trunk, unbranched for most of its length, and up to 130 feet (40m) or more in height, supported a crown of simple branches. Much of the trunk was covered in diamond-shaped leaf bosses, the familiar Lepidodendron fossil. Grass-like leaves, spirally arranged, clothed the upper branches, terminating in cigar shaped cones (Lepidostrobus). These contained, depending on the species, only small spores, large spores, or both.
The Lepidodendron grew in hot and humid swampland.