Germany.Bismuth Crystals # 12


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Mineral: Bismuth ( made in German Labs )
Location: Germany
Size: 3/4″ and up ( 6 pieces of Bismuth are 12.00 )
Price: $ 12

All bismuth  that  you see is all  made in  Labratories in Germany.The color is real and the geometric shapes are again all natural,

Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent other metal, chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur naturally, although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores. The free element is 86% as dense as lead. It is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but is often seen in air with a pink tinge owing to surface oxidation. Bismuth is the most naturally diamagnetic element and has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity among metals.

Bismuth metal has been known from ancient times, although until the 18th century it was often confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties. The etymology is uncertain, but possibly comes from Arabic bi ismid, meaning having the properties of antimony or German words weisse masse or wismuth (“white mass”), translated in the mid-sixteenth century to New Latin bisemutum.

Bismuth has long been considered as the element with the highest atomic mass that is stable. However, in 2003 it was discovered to be slightly radioactive: its onlyprimordial isotopebismuth-209decays with a half life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe.

Bismuth compounds account for about half the production of bismuth. They are used in cosmetics, pigments, and a few pharmaceuticals, notably Pepto-Bismol. Bismuth’s unusual propensity to expand upon freezing is responsible for some of its uses, such as in casting of printing type. Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there is an increasing use of bismuth alloys (presently about a third of bismuth production) as a replacement for lead.

The name bismuth is from ca. 1660s, and is of uncertain etymology. It is one of the first 10 metals to have been discovered. Bismuth appears in the 1660s, from obsolete German BismuthWismutWissmuth (early 16th century); perhaps related to Old High German hwiz (“white”).TheNew Latin bisemutum (due to Georgius Agricola, who Latinized many German mining and technical words) is from the German Wismuth, perhaps from weiße Masse, “white mass.” The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements. Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery. Agricola, in De Natura Fossilium (ca. 1546) states that bismuth is a distinct metal in a family of metals including tin and lead. This was based on observation of the metals and their physical properties Miners in the age of alchemy also gave bismuth the name tectum argenti, or “silver being made,” in the sense of silver still in the process of being formed within the Earth.

Beginning with Johann Heinrich Pott in 1738, Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman, the distinctness of lead and bismuth became clear, and Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated in 1753 that this metal is distinct from lead and tin. Bismuth was also known to theIncas and used (along with the usual copper and tin) in a special bronze alloy for knives.

Physical characteristics[edit]

Bismuth is a brittle metal with a white, silver-pink hue, often occurring in its native form, with an iridescent oxide tarnish showing many colors from yellow to blue. The spiral, stair-stepped structure of bismuth crystals is the result of a higher growth rate around the outside edges than on the inside edges. The variations in the thickness of the oxide layer that forms on the surface of the crystal causes different wavelengths of light to interfere upon reflection, thus displaying a rainbow of colors. When burned in oxygen, bismuth burns with a blue flame and its oxide forms yellow fumes. Its toxicity is much lower than that of its neighbors in the periodic table, such as lead, antimony, and polonium.

No other metal is verified to be more naturally diamagnetic than bismuth. (Superdiamagnetism is a different physical phenomenon.) Of any metal, it has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity (after manganese, and maybe neptunium andplutonium) and the highest Hall coefficient It has a high electrical resistance When deposited in sufficiently thin layers on a substrate, bismuth is a semiconductor, rather than an other metal

Elemental bismuth is denser in the liquid phase than the solid, a characteristic it shares with antimonygermaniumsilicon andgallium. Bismuth expands 3.32% on solidification; therefore, it was long a component of low-melting typesetting alloys, where it compensated for the contraction of the other alloying components to form almost isostatic bismuth-lead eutecticalloys.

Though virtually unseen in nature, high-purity bismuth can form distinctive, colorful hopper crystals. It is relatively nontoxic and has a low melting point just above 271 °C, so crystals may be grown using a household stove, although the resulting crystals will tend to be lower quality than lab-grown crystals

At ambient conditions shares the same layered structure as the metallic forms of arsenic and antimony crystallizing in therhombohedral lattice (Pearson symbol hR6, space group R3m No. 166), which is often classed into trigonal or hexagonal crystal systems.When compressed at room temperature, this Bi-I structure changes first to the monoclinic Bi-II at 2.55 GPa, then to the tetragonal Bi-III at 2.7 GPa, and finally to the body-centered cubic Bi-IV at 7.7 GPa. The corresponding transitions can be monitored via changes in electrical conductivity; they are rather reproducible and abrupt, and are therefore used for calibration of high-pressure equipment.

Bismuth crystal illustrating the many iridescent refraction hues of its oxide surface

Artificially grown bismuth crystal illustrating the stairstep crystal structure, with a 1 cm³ cube of bismuth metal


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Additional information

Weight 1 lbs
Dimensions 2 × 2 × 2 in